Platform.sh User Documentation

Python

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Python is a general purpose scripting language often used in web development. You can deploy Python apps on Platform.sh using a server or a project such as uWSGI.

Supported versions Anchor to this heading

You can select the major and minor version.

Patch versions are applied periodically for bug fixes and the like. When you deploy your app, you always get the latest available patches.

Grid and Dedicated Gen 3 Dedicated Gen 2
  • 3.12
  • 3.11
  • 3.10
  • 3.9
  • 3.8
None available

Specify the language Anchor to this heading

To use Python, specify python as your app’s type:

.platform.app.yaml
type: 'python:<VERSION_NUMBER>'

For example:

.platform.app.yaml
type: 'python:3.9'

Deprecated versions Anchor to this heading

The following versions are deprecated. They’re available, but they aren’t receiving security updates from upstream and aren’t guaranteed to work. They’ll be removed in the future, so migrate to one of the supported versions.

  • 3.7
  • 3.6
  • 3.5
  • 2.7*

* This version doesn’t receive any updates at all. You are strongly recommended to upgrade to a supported version.

Usage example Anchor to this heading

Run your own server Anchor to this heading

You can define any server to handle requests. Once you have it configured, add the following configuration to get it running on Platform.sh:

  1. Specify one of the supported versions:
.platform.app.yaml
type: 'python:3.9'
  1. Install the requirements for your app.
.platform.app.yaml
dependencies:
    python3:
        pipenv: "2022.12.19"

hooks:
    build: |
        set -eu
        pipenv install --system --deploy        
  1. Define the command to start your web server:
.platform.app.yaml
    web:
        # Start your app with the configuration you define
        # You can replace the file location with your location
        commands:
            start: python server.py

You can choose from many web servers such as Daphne, Gunicorn, Hypercorn, and Uvicorn. See more about running Python web servers.

Use uWSGI Anchor to this heading

You can also use uWSGI to manage your server. Follow these steps to get your server started.

  1. Specify one of the supported versions:
.platform.app.yaml
type: 'python:3.9'
  1. Define the conditions for your web server:
.platform.app.yaml
    web:
        upstream:
            # Send requests to the app server through a unix socket
            # Its location is defined in the SOCKET environment variable
            socket_family: "unix"

        # Start your app with the configuration you define
        # You can replace the file location with your location
        commands:
            start: "uwsgi --ini conf/uwsgi.ini"

        locations:
            # The folder from which to serve static assets
            "/":
                root: "public"
                passthru: true
                expires: 1h
  1. Create configuration for uWSGI such as the following:

    config/uwsgi.ini
    [uwsgi]
    # Unix socket to use to talk with the web server
    # Uses the variable defined in the configuration in step 2
    socket = $(SOCKET)
    protocol = http
    
    # the entry point to your app
    wsgi-file = app.py

    Replace app.py with whatever your file is.

  2. Install the requirements for your app.

.platform.app.yaml
dependencies:
    python3:
        pipenv: "2022.12.19"

hooks:
    build: |
        set -eu
        pipenv install --system --deploy        
  1. Define the entry point in your app:

    # You can name the function differently and pass the new name as a flag
    # start: "uwsgi --ini conf/uwsgi.ini --callable <NAME>"
    def application(env, start_response):
    
        start_response('200 OK', [('Content-Type', 'text/html')])
        return [b"Hello world from Platform.sh"]

Package management Anchor to this heading

Your app container comes with pip pre-installed. For more about managing packages with pip, Pipenv, and Poetry, see how to manage dependencies.

To add global dependencies (packages available as commands), add them to the dependencies in your app configuration:

.platform.app.yaml
dependencies:
    python3:
        PACKAGE_NAME: PACKAGE_VERSION

For example, to use pipenv to manage requirements and a virtual environment, add the following:

.platform.app.yaml
dependencies:
    python3:
        pipenv: "2022.12.19"

hooks:
    build: |
        set -eu
        pipenv install --system --deploy        

Connect to services Anchor to this heading

The following examples show how to access various services with Python. For more information on configuring a given service, see the page for that service.

import elasticsearch
from platformshconfig import Config

def usage_example():

    # Create a new Config object to ease reading the Platform.sh environment variables.
    # You can alternatively use os.environ yourself.
    config = Config()

    # Get the credentials to connect to the Elasticsearch service.
    credentials = config.credentials('elasticsearch')

    try:
        # The Elasticsearch library lets you connect to multiple hosts.
        # On Platform.sh Standard there is only a single host so just register that.
        hosts = {
            "scheme": credentials['scheme'],
            "host": credentials['host'],
            "port": credentials['port']
        }

        # Create an Elasticsearch client object.
        client = elasticsearch.Elasticsearch([hosts])

        # Index a few documents
        es_index = 'my_index'
        es_type = 'People'

        params = {
            "index": es_index,
            "type": es_type,
            "body": {"name": ''}
        }

        names = ['Ada Lovelace', 'Alonzo Church', 'Barbara Liskov']

        ids = {}

        for name in names:
            params['body']['name'] = name
            ids[name] = client.index(index=params["index"], doc_type=params["type"], body=params['body'])

        # Force just-added items to be indexed.
        client.indices.refresh(index=es_index)

        # Search for documents.
        result = client.search(index=es_index, body={
            'query': {
                'match': {
                    'name': 'Barbara Liskov'
                }
            }
        })

        table = '''<table>
<thead>
<tr><th>ID</th><th>Name</th></tr>
</thead>
<tbody>'''

        if result['hits']['hits']:
            for record in result['hits']['hits']:
                table += '''<tr><td>{0}</td><td>{1}</td><tr>\n'''.format(record['_id'], record['_source']['name'])
            table += '''</tbody>\n</table>\n'''

        # Delete documents.
        params = {
            "index": es_index,
            "type": es_type,
        }

        for name in names:
            client.delete(index=params['index'], doc_type=params['type'], id=ids[name]['_id'])

        return table

    except Exception as e:
        return e
from json import dumps
from json import loads
from kafka import KafkaConsumer, KafkaProducer
from platformshconfig import Config


def usage_example():
    # Create a new Config object to ease reading the Platform.sh environment variables.
    # You can alternatively use os.environ yourself.
    config = Config()
    # Get the credentials to connect to the Kafka service.
    credentials = config.credentials('kafka')
    
    try:
        kafka_server = '{}:{}'.format(credentials['host'], credentials['port'])
        
        # Producer
        producer = KafkaProducer(
            bootstrap_servers=[kafka_server],
            value_serializer=lambda x: dumps(x).encode('utf-8')
        )
        for e in range(10):
            data = {'number' : e}
            producer.send('numtest', value=data)
        
        # Consumer
        consumer = KafkaConsumer(
            bootstrap_servers=[kafka_server],
            auto_offset_reset='earliest'
        )
        
        consumer.subscribe(['numtest'])
        
        output = ''
        # For demonstration purposes so it doesn't block.
        for e in range(10):
            message = next(consumer)
            output += str(loads(message.value.decode('UTF-8'))["number"]) + ', '

        # What a real implementation would do instead.
        # for message in consumer:
        #     output += loads(message.value.decode('UTF-8'))["number"]

        return output
    
    except Exception as e:
        return e

import pymemcache
from platformshconfig import Config


def usage_example():

    # Create a new Config object to ease reading the Platform.sh environment variables.
    # You can alternatively use os.environ yourself.
    config = Config()

    # Get the credentials to connect to the Memcached service.
    credentials = config.credentials('memcached')

    try:
        # Try connecting to Memached server.
        memcached = pymemcache.Client((credentials['host'], credentials['port']))
        memcached.set('Memcached::OPT_BINARY_PROTOCOL', True)

        key = "Deploy_day"
        value = "Friday"

        # Set a value.
        memcached.set(key, value)

        # Read it back.
        test = memcached.get(key)

        return 'Found value <strong>{0}</strong> for key <strong>{1}</strong>.'.format(test.decode("utf-8"), key)

    except Exception as e:
        return e
from pymongo import MongoClient
from platformshconfig import Config


def usage_example():

    # Create a new Config object to ease reading the Platform.sh environment variables.
    # You can alternatively use os.environ yourself.
    config = Config()

    # The 'database' relationship is generally the name of primary SQL database of an application.
    # It could be anything, though, as in the case here here where it's called "mongodb".
    credentials = config.credentials('mongodb')

    try:
        formatted = config.formatted_credentials('mongodb', 'pymongo')

        server = '{0}://{1}:{2}@{3}'.format(
            credentials['scheme'],
            credentials['username'],
            credentials['password'],
            formatted
        )

        client = MongoClient(server)

        collection = client.main.starwars

        post = {
            "name": "Rey",
            "occupation": "Jedi"
        }

        post_id = collection.insert_one(post).inserted_id

        document = collection.find_one(
            {"_id": post_id}
        )

        # Clean up after ourselves.
        collection.drop()

        return 'Found {0} ({1})<br />'.format(document['name'], document['occupation'])

    except Exception as e:
        return e
import pymysql
from platformshconfig import Config


def usage_example():

    # Create a new Config object to ease reading the Platform.sh environment variables.
    # You can alternatively use os.environ yourself.
    config = Config()

    # The 'database' relationship is generally the name of primary SQL database of an application.
    # That's not required, but much of our default automation code assumes it.'
    credentials = config.credentials('database')

    try:
        # Connect to the database using PDO. If using some other abstraction layer you would inject the values
        # from `database` into whatever your abstraction layer asks for.

        conn = pymysql.connect(host=credentials['host'],
                               port=credentials['port'],
                               database=credentials['path'],
                               user=credentials['username'],
                               password=credentials['password'])

        sql = '''
                CREATE TABLE People (
                id INT(6) UNSIGNED AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,
                name VARCHAR(30) NOT NULL,
                city VARCHAR(30) NOT NULL
                )
                '''

        cur = conn.cursor()
        cur.execute(sql)

        sql = '''
                INSERT INTO People (name, city) VALUES
                ('Neil Armstrong', 'Moon'),
                ('Buzz Aldrin', 'Glen Ridge'),
                ('Sally Ride', 'La Jolla');
                '''

        cur.execute(sql)

        # Show table.
        sql = '''SELECT * FROM People'''
        cur.execute(sql)
        result = cur.fetchall()

        table = '''<table>
<thead>
<tr><th>Name</th><th>City</th></tr>
</thead>
<tbody>'''

        if result:
            for record in result:
                table += '''<tr><td>{0}</td><td>{1}</td><tr>\n'''.format(record[1], record[2])
            table += '''</tbody>\n</table>\n'''

        # Drop table
        sql = '''DROP TABLE People'''
        cur.execute(sql)

        # Close communication with the database
        cur.close()
        conn.close()

        return table

    except Exception as e:
        return e
import psycopg2
from platformshconfig import Config


def usage_example():
    # Create a new Config object to ease reading the Platform.sh environment variables.
    # You can alternatively use os.environ yourself.
    config = Config()

    # The 'database' relationship is generally the name of primary SQL database of an application.
    # That's not required, but much of our default automation code assumes it.' \
    database = config.credentials('postgresql')

    try:
        # Connect to the database.
        conn_params = {
            'host': database['host'],
            'port': database['port'],
            'dbname': database['path'],
            'user': database['username'],
            'password': database['password']
        }

        conn = psycopg2.connect(**conn_params)

        # Open a cursor to perform database operations.
        cur = conn.cursor()

        cur.execute("DROP TABLE IF EXISTS People")

        # Creating a table.
        sql = '''
                CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS People (
                id SERIAL PRIMARY KEY,
                name VARCHAR(30) NOT NULL,
                city VARCHAR(30) NOT NULL
                )
                '''

        cur.execute(sql)

        # Insert data.
        sql = '''
                INSERT INTO People (name, city) VALUES
                ('Neil Armstrong', 'Moon'),
                ('Buzz Aldrin', 'Glen Ridge'),
                ('Sally Ride', 'La Jolla');
                '''

        cur.execute(sql)

        # Show table.
        sql = '''SELECT * FROM People'''
        cur.execute(sql)
        result = cur.fetchall()

        table = '''<table>
<thead>
<tr><th>Name</th><th>City</th></tr>
</thead>
<tbody>'''

        if result:
            for record in result:
                table += '''<tr><td>{0}</td><td>{1}</td><tr>\n'''.format(record[1], record[2])
            table += '''</tbody>\n</table>\n'''

        # Drop table
        sql = "DROP TABLE People"
        cur.execute(sql)

        # Close communication with the database
        cur.close()
        conn.close()

        return table

    except Exception as e:
        return e

import pika
from platformshconfig import Config


def usage_example():
    # Create a new Config object to ease reading the Platform.sh environment variables.
    # You can alternatively use os.environ yourself.
    config = Config()

    # Get the credentials to connect to the RabbitMQ service.
    credentials = config.credentials('rabbitmq')

    try:
        # Connect to the RabbitMQ server
        creds = pika.PlainCredentials(credentials['username'], credentials['password'])
        parameters = pika.ConnectionParameters(credentials['host'], credentials['port'], credentials=creds)

        connection = pika.BlockingConnection(parameters)
        channel = connection.channel()

        # Check to make sure that the recipient queue exists
        channel.queue_declare(queue='deploy_days')

        # Try sending a message over the channel
        channel.basic_publish(exchange='',
                              routing_key='deploy_days',
                              body='Friday!')

        # Receive the message
        def callback(ch, method, properties, body):
            print(" [x] Received {}".format(body))

        # Tell RabbitMQ that this particular function should receive messages from our 'hello' queue
        channel.basic_consume('deploy_days',
                              callback,
                              auto_ack=False)

        # This blocks on waiting for an item from the queue, so comment it out in this demo script.
        # print(' [*] Waiting for messages. To exit press CTRL+C')
        # channel.start_consuming()

        connection.close()

        return " [x] Sent 'Friday!'<br/>"

    except Exception as e:
        return e
from redis import Redis
from platformshconfig import Config


def usage_example():

    # Create a new config object to ease reading the Platform.sh environment variables.
    # You can alternatively use os.environ yourself.
    config = Config()

    # Get the credentials to connect to the Redis service.
    credentials = config.credentials('redis')

    try:
        redis = Redis(credentials['host'], credentials['port'])

        key = "Deploy day"
        value = "Friday"

        # Set a value
        redis.set(key, value)

        # Read it back
        test = redis.get(key)

        return 'Found value <strong>{0}</strong> for key <strong>{1}</strong>.'.format(test.decode("utf-8"), key)

    except Exception as e:
        return e

import pysolr
from xml.etree import ElementTree as et
import json
from platformshconfig import Config


def usage_example():

    # Create a new Config object to ease reading the Platform.sh environment variables.
    # You can alternatively use os.environ yourself.
    config = Config()

    try:
        # Get the pysolr-formatted connection string.
        formatted_url = config.formatted_credentials('solr', 'pysolr')

        # Create a new Solr Client using config variables
        client = pysolr.Solr(formatted_url)

        # Add a document
        message = ''
        doc_1 = {
            "id": 123,
            "name": "Valentina Tereshkova"
        }

        result0 = client.add([doc_1], commit=True)
        client.commit()
        message += 'Adding one document. Status (0 is success): {} <br />'.format(json.loads(result0)['responseHeader']['status'])

        # Select one document
        query = client.search('*:*')
        message += '\nSelecting documents (1 expected): {} <br />'.format(str(query.hits))

        # Delete one document
        result1 = client.delete(doc_1['id'])
        client.commit()
        message += '\nDeleting one document. Status (0 is success): {}'.format(et.fromstring(result1)[0][0].text)

        return message

    except Exception as e:
        return e

Configuration reader Anchor to this heading

While you can read the environment directly from your app, you might want to use the platformshconfig library . It decodes service credentials, the correct port, and other information for you.

Sanitizing data Anchor to this heading

By default, data is inherited automatically by each child environment from its parent. If you need to sanitize data in preview environments for compliance, see how to sanitize databases.

Frameworks Anchor to this heading

All major Python web frameworks can be deployed on Platform.sh. See dedicated guides for deploying and working with them:

Project templates Anchor to this heading

The following list shows templates available for Python apps.

A template is a starting point for building your project. It should help you get a project ready for production.

Django 3

Django 3

This template deploys the Django 3 application framework on Platform.sh, using the gunicorn application runner. It also includes a PostgreSQL database connection pre-configured.

Django is a Python-based web application framework with a built-in ORM.

Features:

  • Python 3.8
  • PostgreSQL 12
  • Automatic TLS certificates
  • Pipfile-based build

View the repository on GitHub.

Django 4

Django 4

This template builds Django 4 on Platform.sh, using the gunicorn application runner.

Django is a Python-based web application framework with a built-in ORM.

Features:

  • Python 3.10
  • PostgreSQL 12

View the repository on GitHub.

FastAPI

FastAPI

This template demonstrates building the FastAPI framework for Platform.sh. It includes a minimalist application skeleton that demonstrates how to connect to a MariaDB server for data storage and Redis for caching. The application starts as a bare Python process with no separate runner. It is intended for you to use as a starting point and modify for your own needs.

FastAPI is a modern, fast (high-performance), web framework for building APIs with Python 3.6+ based on standard Python type hints.

Features:

  • Python 3.9
  • MariaDB 10.4
  • Redis 5.0

View the repository on GitHub.

Flask

Flask

This template demonstrates building the Flask framework for Platform.sh. It includes a minimalist application skeleton that demonstrates how to connect to a MariaDB server for data storage and Redis for caching. The application starts as a bare Python process with no separate runner. It is intended for you to use as a starting point and modify for your own needs.

Flask is a lightweight web microframework for Python.

Features:

  • Python 3.8
  • MariaDB 10.4
  • Redis 5.0
  • Automatic TLS certificates
  • Pipfile-based build

View the repository on GitHub.

Pyramid

Pyramid

This template builds Pyramid on Platform.sh. It includes a minimalist application skeleton that demonstrates how to connect to a MariaDB server for data storage and Redis for caching. It is intended for you to use as a starting point and modify for your own needs.

Pyramid is a web framework written in Python.

Features:

  • Python 3.8
  • MariaDB 10.4
  • Redis 5.0
  • Automatic TLS certificates
  • Pipfile-based build

View the repository on GitHub.

Wagtail

Wagtail

This template builds the Wagtail CMS on Platform.sh, using the gunicorn application runner. It includes a PostgreSQL database that is configured automatically, and a basic demonstration app that shows how to use it. It is intended for you to use as a starting point and modify for your own needs. You will need to run the command line installation process by logging into the project over SSH after the first deploy.

Wagtail is a web CMS built using the Django framework for Python.

Features:

  • Python 3.9
  • PostgreSQL 12
  • Automatic TLS certificates
  • Pipfile-based build

View the repository on GitHub.


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