Performance tuning PHP

Once your application is up and running it still needs to be kept fast. offers a wide degree of flexibility in how PHP behaves, but that does mean you may need to take a few steps to ensure your site is running optimally.

The following recommendations are guidelines only. They're also listed in approximately the order we recommend investigating them, although your mileage may vary.

Upgrade to PHP 7.1+

There is very little purpose to trying to optimize a PHP application on PHP 5. PHP 7 is generally twice as fast and uses half as much memory as PHP 5, making it unquestionably the first step to take when trying to make a PHP-based site run faster.

To change your PHP version, simply change the type key in your to the desired PHP version. As always, test it on a branch first before merging to master.

Ensure that the router cache is properly configured

Although not PHP-specific, a common source of performance issues is a misconfigured cache. The most common issue is not whitelisting session cookies, which results in a site with any cookies at all, including from analytics tools, never being cached. See the router cache documentation, and the cookie entry specifically.

You will also need to ensure that your application is sending the correct cache-control header. The router cache will obey whatever cache headers your application sends, so send it good ones.

Static assets cache headers are set using the expires key in See the web.locations documentation for more details.

Optimize the FPM worker count

PHP-FPM reserves a fixed number of simultaneous worker processes to handle incoming requests. If more simultaneous requests are received than the number of workers then some requests will wait. The default worker count is deliberately set rather conservative but can be improved in many cases. See the PHP-FPM sizing page for how to determine and set a more optimal value.

If your /var/log/app.log file contains a lot of entries like

WARNING: [pool web] server reached max_children setting (2), consider raising it

That means your worker count is too low. If you have already set an optimal worker size and still see that message frequently consider upgrading your project resources.

Configure opcache

PHP 5.5 and later include an opcache that is enabled at all times, as it should be. It may still need to be tuned, however. The opcache can be configured using php.ini values, which in this case are best set using the variables block in

The most important values to set are

  • opcache.max_accelerated_files: The max number of files that the opcache may cache at once. If this is lower than the number of files in the application it will begin thrashing and become less effective.
  • opcache.memory_consumption: The total memory that the opcache may use. If the application is larger than this the cache will start thrashing and become less effective.

To determine how many files you have, run this command from the root of your application:

find . -type f -name '*.php' | wc -l

That will report the number of files in your file tree that end in .php. That may not be perfectly accurate (some applications have PHP code in files that don't end in .php, it may not catch generated files that haven't been generated yet, etc.) but it's a reasonable approximation. Set the opcache.max_accelerated_files option to a value slightly higher than this. Note that PHP will automatically round the value you specify up to the next highest prime number, for reasons long lost to the sands of time.

Determining an optimal opcache.memory_consumption is a bit harder, unfortunately, as it requires executing code via a web request to get adequate statistics. Fortunately there is a command line tool that will handle most of that.

Change to the /tmp directory (or any other non-web-accessible writable directory) and install CacheTool. It has a large number of commands and options but we're only interested in the opcache status for FastCGI command. The really short version of downloading and using it would be:

cd /tmp
curl -sO
php cachetool.phar opcache:status --fcgi=$SOCKET

The --fcgi=$SOCKET option tells the command how to connect to the PHP-FPM process on the server through the socket. That command will output something similar to the following:

| Name                 | Value                           |
| Enabled              | Yes                             |
| Cache full           | No                              |
| Restart pending      | No                              |
| Restart in progress  | No                              |
| Memory used          | 29.65 MiB                       |
| Memory free          | 34.35 MiB                       |
| Memory wasted (%)    | 0 b (0%)                        |
| Cached scripts       | 1528                            |
| Cached keys          | 2609                            |
| Max cached keys      | 32531                           |
| Start time           | Mon, 18 Jun 2018 18:19:32 +0000 |
| Last restart time    | Never                           |
| Oom restarts         | 0                               |
| Hash restarts        | 0                               |
| Manual restarts      | 0                               |
| Hits                 | 8554                            |
| Misses               | 1594                            |
| Blacklist misses (%) | 0 (0%)                          |
| Opcache hit rate     | 84.29247142294                  |

The most important values for now are the Memory used, Memory free, and Oom restarts (Out Of Memory Restarts). If the Oom restarts number is high (meaning more than a handful) it means you don't have enough memory allocated to the opcache. In this example the opcache is using about half of the 64 MB given to it by default, which is fine. If Memory free is too low or Oom Restarts too high, set a higher value for the memory consumption.

Remember to remove the cachetools.phar file once you're done with it.

Your file will end up including a block similar to:

        'opcache.max_accelerated_files': 22000
        'opcache.memory_consumption': 96

(Memory consumption is set in megabytes.)

Optimize your code

It's also possible that your own code is doing more work than it needs to. Profiling and optimizing a PHP application is a much larger topic than will fit here, but recommends enabling on your project to determine what slow spots can be found and addressed.